Setting goals for student learning involves a delicate balance between having high expectations and knowing what is realistically possible to expect, given the level at which the student is starting, the particular skill area on which instruction is focused, and the amount of time devoted to providing supplemental instruction and support.
For some students, an individual teacher might set goals based on their knowledge of where students should be by the end of the year (roughly speaking, if a student scores at the 50th percentile, then they would be performing at average grade level expectations for that measure at that time of year). In situations where a student study team or IEP team meet, goals are frequently set in consultation with the student, their parents/guardians, and other specialist who might provide additional insights.
The easyCBM program has a tutorial on how to create a student goal. This video will walk you through the steps needed to establish a goal and provide you with some items to consider in determining goals for students.
If you login to your account and click on the Reports tab, then select the Individuals tab, look to the upper right-hand corner for a link called Goal Setting Tutorial. Click on this link and view the tutorial.